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英文合同的结构与条款

文章来源:新浪博客作者:David时间:2017-03-27 11:01:09浏览量:1140
摘要:一份标准英文合同通常可以分为前言(Preamble)、正文(Habendum)、附录(Schedule)及证明部分即结束词(Attestation)四大部分组成。

1.前言

一份标准英文合同通常可以分为前言(Preamble)、正文(Habendum)、附录(Schedule)及证明部分即结束词(Attestation)四大部分组成。

前言(Preamble)由“Parties”及“Recitals”两部分组成。

“Parties”为必备条款,在很多时候称为“commencement”即合同的开场白,主要介绍合同各方的名称或姓名、注册地及地址、邮编及在合同中的简称。当然,并不是所有的合同都要详细介绍以上诸要素,在许多简单合同中,只是提一下各方的名称。

I. 以下为“Parties”的常用表达方式:

1. This Agreement is entered into by and between __________ and __________.
本协议由以下双方_______和_______ 签署。
注: 如果涉及多方,between可用among替换。在常见的中文合同中,也有将其表示为:
甲方:__________
乙方:__________

2. This Agreement is entered into by and between __________ (hereinafter referred to as "_____") and __________ (hereinafter referred to as "_____"), whereby it is agreed as follows:
本协议由以下双方_______(以下简称“_____”)和_______(以下简称“_____”)签署,达成如下协议:

注:在很多合同中,这部分加入签约书由,如:
This Agreement is entered into through friendly negotiations between __________ Co.
(hereinafter referred to as the “Party A”) and __________ Co. (hereinafter referred to as the “Party B”) based on equality and mutual benefit to develop business on the terms and conditions set forth below:
本协议由__________(以下称为甲方)和__________(以下称为乙方)为发展业务在平等互利的基础上签订,其条款如下:

This Agreement is entered into between __________ (hereinafter referred to as "Company"), and __________, (hereinafter referred to as "Employee") pursuant to paragraph VIII(2) of the Employee Handbook, whereby it is agreed as follows:
本“协议”由____________(以下简称“公司”)与____________(以下简称“雇员”)根据“雇员手册”第VIII(2)款签署,“协议”内容如下:

II. 以下为标准的“Parties”条款:

3. This Agreement is made and entered into this _____th day of _____ in the year of ___________ by and between ___________, a company duly organized and existing under and by virtue of the laws of __________, with its principal place of business at ____________________ (hereinafter referred to as “_____”), and ___________, a company duly organized and existing under and by virtue of the laws of __________, with its principal place of business at ____________________ (hereinafter referred to as “_____”), whereby it is agreed as follows:
本合约由__________,在_____法律之下并凭该等法律正式组织并存在的公司,其主要营业地点在____________________(下称_____),与__________,在_____法律之下并凭该等法律正式组织并存在的公司,其主要营业地点____________________(下称代理人),于_____年_____月
_____日签订和缔结,协议如下:

III. “Recitals” 由数个以"Whereas"字样开头的句子所组合而成(这些句子俗称为“Whereas Clauses”),表示当事人乃是在基于对这些事实(例如订约的目的、背景来由等)的共同认识,订立此合约。

4. This Agreement is made and entered into this _____ day of _____ in the year of ___________ by and between ___________, a company duly organized and existing under and by virtue of the laws of __________, with its principal place of business at ____________________ (hereinafter referred to as “_____”), and ___________, a company duly organized and existing under and by virtue of the laws of __________, with its principal place of business at ____________________ (hereinafter referred
to as “_____”)
WITNESSED
WHEREAS, _____________________________________________,
WHEREAS, _____________________________________________, and
WHEREAS, _____________________________________________.
NOW THEREFORE, the parties hereto agree as follows:

本合约由__________,在_____法律之下并凭该等法律正式组织并存在的公司,其主要营业地点在____________________(下称_____)(或下称供应商),与__________,在_____法律之下并凭该等法律正式组织并存在的公司,其主要营业地点____________________(下称代理人),于_____年_____月_____日签订和缔结。
鉴于________________________________________________;
鉴于________________________________________________;
鉴于________________________________________________;
因此,双方当事人达成以下协议:

注:WITNESSED可以用WITHNESSTH、WITHNESSTH THAT等来代替。
IV. 在很多美国常用合同中,在很多情况下直接用RECITALS引导数个陈述语句或“Whereas Clauses”。下面为一个资产购买协议实例:
This ASSET PURCHASE AGREEMENT (the "Agreement") is made and entered into as of May 19, 1997 by and among AAA, a Delaware corporation ("AAA"), BBB, a Delaware corporation and wholly-owned subsidiary of AAA ("Buyer"), CCC ("Summit"), and DDD, an Oregon corporation and wholly-owned subsidiary of Summit ("Seller").

RECITALS

A. The Boards of Directors of each of Summit, Seller, AAA and Buyer believe it is in the best interests of each company and their respective security holders that Buyer acquire certain listed assets and assume certain listed liabilities of Seller (the "Acquisition").

B. On the date hereof, Buyer has executed a $2,000,000 irrevocable purchase order to purchase 400 time-based licenses for Summit`s Visual HDL interfaces for Visual Test bench ("VTB") software on AAA`s standard form of purchase order, which is payable within five (5) business days after the date hereof.

NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the covenants, promises and representations set forth herein, and for other good and valuable consideration, the parties agree as follows:


 
 2. 定义

在正文(Habendum)部分,通常第一章为定义(Definitions)部分。

定义条款即对合同中涉及的术语及名词作出限定、解释的条款。它可以散见于合同各个部分,但对于一些大型的、重要的合同,通常将其置于第一章。

I. 常见的定义语句常用mean, refer to, be construed as, include等来表达。如:

1. "Territory" means the United States of America.
“销售地区”是指美利坚合众国。

2. “Commencement date” shall mean the date of signing this agreement by the last signing party hereto.
“协议生效日”是指本“协议”最后签字的一方签署本“协议”的日期。

3. The “agreement” herein referred to shall mean this agreement of agency by entrustment.
“协议”在这里是指本委托代理协议。

4. “Code” shall refer to the current and applicable Internal Revenue Code.
“法”是指当前可用的国内税收法。

5. Reference to any statutory provision shall be construed as a reference to the same as it may have been, or may from time be, amended, modified or re-enacted.
引用法律规定理解为引用其本身外,还包括其修订、修正或重新实施案。

6. "Expenses" include costs, charges and expenses of every description.
“费用”包括各种形式的金钱支出。

II. 还有一类特殊的定义语句,即对于「单、复数」及「阴、阳性」名词的范围定义。通常都是用include来表达:

1. "Stock Certificate" includes "stock certificate" and "stock certificates".
合同中的“股票”,包括单数与复数。

2. "He" includes "he" and "she".
合同中的“他”,包括“他”与“她”。

3. Words using the singular or plural number also include the plural or singular number.
采用单数或复数的单词也包括复数或单数。

III. 定义语句中,有时需限定范围。而通常用得最多的是:“for the purpose of ”及“in relation to” 某概念的定义条款,如果适用范围仅限于合同的“特定部份”,可以用“for the purpose of ”来为定义条款起头。而如果定义条款是针对合同的“特定概念”,就用“in relation to”来界定。如下例:

1. For the purpose of this Agreement, "Products" means all types of the machineries manufactured by Manufacturer as are specified in Attachment A hereto.
本协议所称的“产品”,指制造人所制造如附件A表列之各式机器。

2. "Address" means-
(a) in relation to an individual, his usual residential or business address; and
(b) in relation to a corporation, its registered or principal office in the Republic of China.
“地址”就自然人而言,指通常之居所或工作场所;就公司而言,指位于中华人民共和国之注册所在地或主营业所。

IV. 在定义条款中,在定义语句前有时会加上一些陈述语句来引导,如:

1. For the purpose of this Agreement, each of the following terms shall have the following meaning respectively:
就本合同的目的而言,下列各用语,分别具有下述意义:

2. In this Agreement, the following words or expressions shall have the meanings given to them respectively below:
本协议内所用词句的意义,明确阐述如下:

3. In this agreement unless the context otherwise requires, the following words and expressions shall have the meanings assigned to them hereunder:
除非本“协议”有明确规定,下列词语应当具有如下规定之意义:

4. The following are the definitions of various terms used in this Agreement:
本“协议”使用之术语定义如下:

 

3. 有效期

有效期(Term)条款通常规定合同的有效期限,何时生效及到何时结束,合同结束后必要时如何延展等等。

I. 以下为“Term”的常用表达方式:

1. The term of this contract is for a _____ (_____) year period.
合同的有效期为_____年。
如:The term of this contract is for a one (1) year period.

2. The contract is for a _____ month period, commencing _________________.
合同的有效期为_____月,开始于____________________。(期限)
如:
a. The contract is for a 12 month period, commencing September 17, 2002 thru September 16, 2003.
b. The contract is for a 6 month period, commencing 4-1-03 and ending 9-30-2003.

3. This agreement remains valid for _____ year(s), i.e. commencing on ______, _____and terminating on ______, _____.
本协议在_____年之内有效,即从_____年_____月_____日起生效,_____年_____月_____日起到期。

4. The contract term is hereby extended for the period_______________.
合同的有效期为____________________。
如:The contract term is hereby extended for the period 7/01/02-6/30/03 in accordance with Section E, Paragraph 10, Term of Contract and Contract Extension.

II. Term条款除了规定合同的期限外,通常另外合同期限的延展“Extension”。

1. The contract period is for _____ year with option to re-new for _____ year.
合同有效期为_____年,同时可以选择延长_____年。

2. The contract is for a _____ month period, commencing _______________. The contract may be renewed for up to _____ year option periods.
合同的有效期为_____月,开始于_________________,同时可以选择延长_____年。

3. This agreement shall commence on the commencement date and shall endure for a continuous period of _____ years. Thereafter it will be automatically renewed for successive periods of _____ years on the same terms and conditions unless one of the parties had given _____days notice of termination.
本协议应自生效日生效并在_____年内有效。此后,除非一方当事人提前_____天书面通知对方当事人终止本协议,本协议有效期自动延长_____年,协议条款不变。

III. Term条款并没有十分固定的表达方式,以下即是一些合同中Term的实例:

1. This Agreement shall be valid and remain in force for a period of three (3) years commencing from the date appearing first above written upon the signing of both Party A and Party B and shall be extended for another period of three (3) years on the same terms and conditions unless either of the parties hereto gives the other party at least thirty (30) days prior written notice to terminate this Agreement
prior to the expiration of the original term.
本合约须从上面首次写明的甲方和乙方签订本约的日期起生效并保持效力三年,并将按同样条件延长三年,否则与约任何一方至少须在原定时间期满前三十天给予另一方提前终止本合约的书面通知。

2. At any time and from time to time during the period commencing on the date hereof and terminating on ______, 20___, party A may in writing advise party B.
自本协议签订之日起到______年______月协议终止这段期间内,甲方可随时以书面形式通知乙方。

3. The term of this Agreement shall be three years from the effective date, unless terminated in accordance with Article VI- (3) and Article IX.
本合同的期限除非根据第8条第3款及第9条的规定终止外,有效期为3年。

4. The contract is valid from __________________ until ____________________.
The contract period is automatically extended for any leave of absence allowed for in law.
合同的有效期为从___________到__________。

5. The term of this Agreement shall commence on the _____ day of _____ , 200__, and end on the _____ day of _____, 200__. Upon expiration of the above initail term, this Agreement shall automatically be renew and extended for a like period of time unless terminated in writing by either party _____ days prior to the date for such renewal.
本协议期限为200__年____月____日至200__年___月___日。除非续订日前_____天一方以书面方式提出终止,否则上述首期届满后,协议应自动续订,延长时间与前期相同。 

4. 不可抗力

Force Majeure条款是一种免责条款,即免除由于不可抗力事件而违约的一方的违约责任。一般应规定的内容包括:不可抗力事件的定义(Definition of Force Majeure)以及不可抗力事件的后果(Consequences of Force Majeure) 。在Force Majeure条款中,两者属于因果关系,难以截然分开。

I. 对于Force Majeure的定义,《合同法》定义如下:
本法所称不可抗力,是指不能预见、不能避免并不能克服的客观情况。
For purposes of this Law, force majeure means any objective circumstance, which is unforeseeable, unavoidable and insurmountable.

II. 以下是Force Majeure条款的举例:

1. Neither party shall be responsible for delays or failures in performance resulting from acts or facts reasonably beyond the control of that party.
任何一方不应对因其无法控制之行为或事实造成协议延迟履行或不履行承担任何责任。

2. Either Party shall not be liable for any delay caused by any unpredictable factor or any factor which is unavoidable or insurmountable by reasonable means at the time of conclusion of this Agreement, or any loss caused by failure in fulfillment of obligations as stipulated herein.
协议任一方无须对因任何在本协议签订时无法预见或以合理手段也无法避免或克服之原因造成的迟延或不履行本协议之义务所造成的损失承担责任。
注:以上采用的是类似《合同法》概括的定义方法。而合同为不可抗力定义时更多地采用列举的方法。

3. Neither party of this Agreement, directly or indirectly owing to any causes or circumstances beyond its control, including Acts of God, Governmental orders or restriction, war, warlike conditions, revolutions, strike, lockout, fire and flood.
本合同任何一方当事人对直接或间接地由于其无法控制的原因或情况包括自然灾害、政府命令或限制、战争、战争状态、革命、罢工、工厂被关闭、火灾、水灾等而未能履行或延迟履行合同或合同一部分的行为,不负任何责任。
注: Acts of God通常也译为“不可抗力”,但主要是指自然灾害;而Force Majeure则包括自然及人为两方面。

4. Neither party will be liable for nondelivery, misdelivery or late delivery (other than the payment of money due hereunder) caused by circumstances beyond its reasonable control, including, among others, war, civil strife or commotion, riots, strikes, fires, floods, acts of God, inability to obtain materials, failure of carriers or compliance with any law, regulation or governmental order.
任何当事人将不会为任何因为不可控制的情况产生的未交付货物、交付错误或延迟交货(除了支付应付款)。不可控制的情况包括战争、国内斗争或暴乱、骚乱、罢工、火灾、洪灾、自然灾害、无力获得材料、承运人的失误、遵守法律、法规或政府令。

5. Should either of the parties to the contract by prevented from executing the contract by force majeure, such as earthquake, typhoon, flood, fire and war and other unforeseen events, and their happening and consequences are unpreventable and unavoidable, the prevented party shall notify the other party by cable without any delay, and within 15 days thereafter provide the detailed information of the events and a valid document for evidence issued by the relevant public notary organization
for explaining the reason of its inability to execute or delay the execution of all or part of the contract. Both parties shall, through consolations, decide whether to terminate the contract or to exempt the part of obligations for implementation of the contract or whether to delay the execution of the contract according to the effects of the events on the performance of the contract.
由于地震、台风、水灾、火灾、战争以及其它不能预见并且对其发生和后果不能防止或避免的不可抗力事件出现,致使直接影响合同的履行或者不能按约定的条件履行时,遇有上述不可抗力的一方,应立即电报通知对方,并应在十五天内,提供不可抗力详情及合同不能履行、或者部分不履行、或者需要延期履行的理由的有效证明文件。此项证明文件应由事故发生地有权证明的机构出具。按其对履行合同影响的程度,由双方协商决定是否解除合同,或者部分履行合同,或者延期履行合同。

6. Force majeure shall hereof consist of the following events:
Where such cases as war, earthquake, serious windstorms, snow, or fire or other events which no party can foresee and prevent from happening occur;
The related laws and regulations in collection with the execution of duties by any party to this Agreement undergo changes, under which this Agreement will be illegal or the transfer cannot be fulfilled.
In event of the occurrence of the above-mentioned events, if any party (hereinafter referred to as the “Effected Party ”) has been delayed or deterred from performing the duties of this Agreement in the course of its execution, the Affected Party shall be free from any liabilities for breach of the agreement and for compensation.
In event of the force majeure, the affected party shall, within _____days from the date of the occurrence, notify the other party of the impact of such events on the execution of the duties in this Agreement, by telex, telegraph or in any other lawful written form, and simultaneously submit the relevant official credentials concerning the force majeure herein.
Should the effect of the force majeure cases last more than _____ days, both parties shall consult each other about the alterations of this Agreement; in case they fail to reach an agreement, Chapter 8 shall thereupon apply.
下述事件构成不可抗力:
(1)发生战争、地震、严重的风灾、雪灾、火灾或其他各方无法预见、无法抗拒的事故。
(2)自本协议签订之日起与本协议任何一方履行本协议相关的法律、法规发生变更致使本协议非法或转让行为无法完成。
在发生本协议不可抗力事件之后,任何一方(以下简称受影响方)在履行本协议义务时受到拖延或不能履行时,受影响方不承担任何违约责任及赔偿责任。
在发生不可抗力事件时,受影响方应自不可抗力事件发生之日起_____天内以电传或电报或其他任何合理书面方式,通知另一方有关不可抗力的发生和不可抗力对其履行本协议的义务的影响,同时应呈交不可抗力的有关官方证明。
在不可抗力事件延续_____天后,双方必须磋商本协议的变更,双方未能协商一致的,适用本协议第八章的规定。

7. Force Majeure
(1) No party to this Contract shall be liable to the other party for any failure of or delay in performance of its obligations hereof nor be deemed to be in breach of this Contract, if such failure or delay has arisen from "force majeure."
(2) "Force Majeure" means circumstances and conditions beyond the control of either parties, that would render it impossible for either the Owner or the Contractor to fulfill their obligations under this Contract, or delay such fulfillment. Any of the following matters are considered "force majeure."
a. war, hostilities, act of foreign enemy, invasion, warlike opera-tions (whether war to be declared or not) or civil war;
b. mutiny, civil commotion assuming the proportions of or amounting to a popular rising, military rising, insurrection, rebellion, revolution, military or usurped  power, or any act of any person acting on behalf of or in connection with any organization with activities directed towards the overthrow by force of the Government de jure or de facto, or to the influencing of it by terrorism or violence;
c. earthquake, flood, fire or other natural physical disaster;
d. denial of the use of all ports, airports, shipping services or other means of public transport;
e. strike or lock out or other industrial concerted action by workers, affecting the fulfillment of Contractor`s and subcontractors` obligations;
f. and other unforeseen circumstances beyond the control of the parties so affected rendering the fulfillment of their obligations impossible.
(3) If either party to this Contract is prevented or delayed from or in performing any of his obligations under this Contract by force majeure, then he may notify the other party of the circumstances constituting the force majeure and of the obligation performance of which is thereby delayed or prevented and the party giving the notice shall thereupon be excused from the performance or punctual performance, as the case may be, of such obligation for so long as the circumstances of prevention or delay may continue.
(4) If by virtue of the preceding sub-clause dither party shall be excused from the performance or punctual performance of any obligation for a continuous period of ________ months, then either party may at any time thereafter terminate this Contract by giving a written notice to the other party.
不可抗力
(1) 如果任何一方因不可抗力而款能履行或推迟履行其义务,则不对另一方负责,也不应视作违反合同。
(2) “不可抗力”指业主或承包商无法控制的情况,使当事人未能按本合同履行其义务,或者不得不延迟履行其义务。下列情况均被视作“不可抗力”:
a. 战争、敌对事件、外敌行动、入侵、类似战争的军事行动(不管是事宣战)、内战;
b. 士兵哗变、民众暴乱、军事叛乱、起义、造反、革命、篡权、或者任何个人代表某个组织或与某个组织有联系、旨在以暴力推翻合法或现存政府、或以恐怖主义或暴力对政府施加影响的行为;
c. 地震、洪水、火灾或其他自然灾害;
d. 所有港口、机场、船运或其他公共交通工具的使用均遭拒绝;
e. 工人罢工、工厂停工、或其他的劳工联合行动,影响了承包商和分包商履行其义务;
f. 当事人无法控制、从而使其不能履行义务的其他任何意外情况。
(3) 如果本合同任何一方因不可抗力不能或延迟履行本合同规定的任何义务,他可将不可抗力和由此造成的延迟或妨碍情况通知另一方。发出通知的一方允许根据具体情况及妨碍或延迟持续的时间免于履行或推迟履行合同。
(4) 根据本第款第3分条规定,如果任何一方免于履行或推迟履行其义务的时间持续了________个月,那么任何一方都可随时向另一方发出书面通知,终止本合同。 

 

5. 修改

合同修订 (Modification)条款为合同常用条款.主要规定了合同修订的方式与途径。例如:书面合同,只能以书面方式进行修订,口头修订内容无效。

I. Modification条款通常较为简单,以下为一些常用比较简约的表达方式:

1. The contract can be amended only after the amendment is agreed upon by both parties.
只有经双方一致同意,合同方可变更。

2. This Agreement may be amended only by a written instrument signed by duly authorized representatives of both parties.
本合同只有经双方当事人授权的代表正式签署的书面文件,方可修改。

3. This Agreement may not be amended or modified except by written instrument signed
by each of the Parties hereto.
除非经本协议当事人签署的书面通知,否则本协议书不得作出任何修改和变更。

4. Any alterations or amendments of this Agreement shall be subject to agreement through consultation between both parties in writing.
本协议的任何变更或修改,应由本协议双方协商一致,并以书面方式进行。

5. This Agreement shall not be modified or amended except by a written instrument, signed by the parties hereto.
除非双方当事人共同签署书面文件,否则本“协议”不得修改或修订。

6. Any modification, amendment or waiver of any of the provisions of this Agreement must otherwise be made in writing and duly signed by the parties hereto.
对本“协议”任何规定的任何变更、修改或免责必须另以书面形式作出,并经各方正式签字。

7. During the period of validity of the agreement, either party shall be entitled to make proposal of amendment to the agreement and the agreement amended shall go into effect with the signature of the two parties.
在协议的有效期内,任何一方都有权提出对协议进行修改,修改后的协议经过双方签署后才能够生效。

II. 在实际运用中,由于内容环境不同,表达可能有所不同,以下为一些实例:

1. If the loan contract affiliated to this Contract has to be abridged, amended, or revised, both parties shall negotiate to amend and revise this Contract in line with the provisions of the loan contract.
本股权质押项下的贷款合同如有修改、补充而影响本质押合同时,双方应协商修改、补充本质押合同,使其与股权质押项下贷款合同规定相一致。

2. If this Contract shall be abridged, revised, or amended on account of force majeure, the responsibilities assumed by the Party A under this Contract shall not be exempted or reduced, and the rights and interests of the Party B under this Contract shall not been affected or infringed.
如因不可抗力原因致本合同须作一定删节、修改、补充时,应不免除或减少甲方在本合同中所承担的责任,不影响或侵犯乙方在本合同项下的权益。

3. The amendment of the contract or other appendices shall come into force only after the written agreement signed by Party A and Party B and approved by the original examination and approval authority.
对本合同及其附件的修改必须经甲、乙双方签署书面协议,并报原审批机构批准,方可生效。

4. This Agreement may be amended in writing signed by both Parties. Unless otherwise expressly agreed to in such amendment, all terms and conditions of this Agreement shall apply to any such addition and all rights granted to Licensee under this Agreement shall terminate as to any such deletion.
本协议可由「双方」书面签署予以修改。除在此种修改中另行明确同意外,本协议所有的条款和条件须适用于任何此类修改中所做的添加,而所有根据本协议而给予「被许可人」的权利对于任何此类修改中的删除事项而言将终止。 

6. 补偿

损害赔偿(indemnification)条款,是减少合同风险的一个重要条款。该条款主要约定在第三者对合同提出权利主张时,另一缔约方应当对此承担责任。通常情况下,另一缔约方必须支付全部的防御性诉讼费用,以及全部的支付给第三者的和解费用或者第三者胜诉后造成的所有损失。
实际上,本条款是将第三人造成的风险从合同的一方当事人转移给另一方当事人。
其次,本条款也可以约定合同的另一缔约方有其他不当的作为时,应当进行损害赔偿。
I. Indemnification 条款常用“indemnify and hold harmless from……”来表达:
1. Party A agrees to indemnify and hold Party B harmless from any claim or demand,
including reasonable attorneys` fees, made by any third party due to or arising out
of ______________________________.
甲方同意对乙方因______________________________造成的损失作出赔偿及保证乙方不招致任何第三方索偿或索求,包括合理的律师费用。

应用实例:
Party A agrees to indemnify and hold Party B harmless from any claim or demand, including reasonable attorneys` fees, made by any third party due to or arising out of Party A`s use of the Site, the violation of this Agreement by Party A, or the infringement by Party A, or other user of the Site using Party A`s login name and password, of any intellectual property or other right of any person or entity.
甲方同意对乙方因甲方使用网站、或甲方违反本协议、或因甲方或其它使用甲方之登记名称及密码而使用网站的使用者,侵犯任何知识产权或任何其它人士或单位的其它权利所造成的损失作出赔偿及保证乙方不招致任何索偿或索求,包括合理的律师费用。

2. Party A shall indemnify and hold party B and each of party B officers, directors, stockholders, employees and agents harmless against, and in respect of, any damage, loss, liability, cost or expense, including attorneys, fees, resulting or arising from or incurred in connection with this Agreement and the transactions contemplated hereby, except such as may result from willful malfeasance if party B or such officer, director, stockholder, employee of agent, as the case may be.
甲方应当赔偿乙方及其每个职员、董事、股东、雇员及其代理人因此协议引起或与此协议以后的交易相关事项而产生的损害、损失、责任、开支或费用,包括律师费用,但因乙方或其职员、董事、股东、雇员或代理人有意的过失而引起的损失除外。

3. Each party will defend, indemnify and hold the other harmless from and against all actions, proceedings, claims, demands, suits, losses, damages and expenses, including reasonable attorneys fees and costs reasonably incurred in defending any proceedings in which the damages sustained arose from a failure of the other party to meet its obligations under this agreement. In no event will either party be liable to the other in connection with this agreement for special, incidental, indirect or consequential or punitive damages regardless of whether either or both parties knew of the possibility of such damages.
一方当事人将使另一方当事人免于承担诉讼、索赔、请求、损害赔偿金及费用,包括为以下诉讼辩护而发生的合理的律师费:因另一方当事人未根据本协议履行其义务而导致损害赔偿的诉讼。
不管一方当事人或双方当事人是否知道特殊损害赔偿、附带损害赔偿、间接损害赔偿、后果性损害赔偿、惩罚性损害赔偿发生的可能性,一方当事人均不会为另一方当事人承担上述损害赔偿。

4. Contractor agrees to protect, defend, indemnify and hold harmless company, its parent, subsidiaries and affiliated companies, and its and their employees, subcontractors and its and their insurers from and against any claim, demand, cause of action, loss, expense award, obligation to indemnify another, judgment or liability on account of illness, injury or death to the employees of contractor and contractor’s subcontractors and/or damage to or loss or destruction of the property of contractor arising directly or indirectly out of the performance of this contract regardless of omissions or negligence, in whole or in any part, of company.
承包商同意保护、辩护、赔偿和保证公司、其上级公司、下属公司和关联公司、及其雇员、次承包商和其保险公司不承担在履行本合同过程中,不论公司是否存在部分或全部的不作为或疏忽的责任,直接或间接所导致的承包商和次承包商的雇员生病、受伤或死亡以及承包商的财产所遭受的毁损灭失相关的任何诉求、要求、诉因、损失、费用、对他方的赔偿义务、判决或赔偿责任。

II. Indemnification 条款还有多种表达方式,但并不固定。
1. Notwithstanding any of indemnities and liabilities specifically referred to above, neither company or contractor shall be liable to the other with respect to any consequential loss including, but not limited to, loss of anticipated profit, loss of anticipated revenue, loss of anticipated production, loss of product, or loss of use of money, arising or alleged to arise out of either company’s or contractor’s failure to property carry out its obligations hereunder or due to omissions or negligence, in whole or any part, of the part at fault, its subcontractors or vendors or the un-seaworthiness of vessel, or strict liability, and regardless of whether pre-existing the execution of the agreement.
除上列特别述及的赔偿和责任外,公司或承包商相互间不承担任何间接损失,包括但不限于预计的利润损失、预计的收益损失、预计的生产损失、产品损失、无法使用金钱的损失,由于或认为系因公司或承包商未能正确地履行本合同的义务或由于该违约系由于其次承包商或供应商(买方)或船舶不适航或严格责任和不论是否存在依以前协议履行原因,所导致的部分或全部的不作为或疏忽所造成的损失。

2. All remedies specified herein or otherwise available shall be cumulative and in addition to any and every other remedy provided hereunder or now or hereafter available at law or in equity. No waiver or failure to act with respect to any breach or default hereunder, whether or not the other party has notice thereof, shall be deemed to be a waiver with respect to any subsequent breach or default, whether of similar or different nature.
依据法律或衡平法,本“协议”所述的赔偿或其它可得的赔偿应当是累积的,并在本“协议”中规定的赔偿之外,或在现在或此后可得的赔偿之外。无论对方当事人通知与否,任何与违反协议或不履行协议有关的弃权不得视为与任何后来的违反协议或不履行协议有关的弃权,无论是否性质相同或不同。

III.在大型合同中,Indemnification 条款往往非常复杂,以下即为。

Indemnification

(a) Each party shall indemnify and hold harmless the other party, its shareholders, directors, officers, employees, agents, designees and assignees, or any of them, from and against all losses, damages, liabilities, expenses, costs, claims, suits, demands, actions, causes of actions, proceedings, judgments, assessments, deficiencies and charges collectively, "Damages") caused by, relating to or arising from the performance by such party in accordance with this Contract of its
obligations hereunder, and Buyer shall also indemnify Seller, without limiting the foregoing, for any such item caused by, relating to or arising from (a) the programming services which are authorized for viewing sing the System, including any assertion that any such programming service involves copyright infringement, (b) any disputes between Buyer and any of its program distributors or other distributors or affiliates, (c) any disputes or claims involving the subscribers for Buyer`s programming services, or (d) any assertion that Buyer has been involved in, that Buyer`s conduct of subscription involves, or that Buyer`s use of the System involves, any unfair competition or violations of laws, rules or regulations.

(b) In the event of a third-party claim, with respect to which a party’s entitled to indemnification hereunder, a party (the "Indemnified Party") shall notify the other party (the "Indemnifying Party") in writing s soon as practicable, but in no event later than ______ days after receipt of such claims. The Indemnified Party`s failure to provide such noticed shall not preclude it from seeking indemnification hereunder unless such failure has materially prejudiced the Indemnifying Party`s ability to defend such claim. The Indemnifying Party shall promptly defend such claim with counsel of its own choosing) and the Indemnified Party shall cooperate with the Indemnifying Party in the defense of such claim, including the settlement of the matter on the basis stipulated by the indemnifying Party (with the Indemnifying Party being responsible for all costs and expenses of such settlement).

If the Indemnifying Party within a reasonable time after notice of a claim fails to defend the Indemnified party, the Indemnified Party shall be entitled to undertake the defense, compromise or settlement of such claim at the expense of the Indemnifying arty. Upon the assumption of the defense of such claim, the Indemnifying arty may settle, compromise or defend as it sees fit. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary set forth in this Section, seller will defend any suit,  claim, action or proceeding brought against buyers to the extent that such suit, claim, action or proceeding is based on a claim that goods manufactured and sold by Seller to Buyer infringe patent, copyright, mask work, trademark, trade secret or any other intellectual property rights of any third party and Seller shall pay all damages and costs awarded by final judgment (from which no appeal may be taken) against Buyer, as well as its actual expenses and costs, on condition that Seller (i) is promptly informed and furnished a copy of ach communication, notice or other action relating to the alleged infringement, (ii) is given sole control of the defense (including the right to select counsel), and the sole right to compromise and settle such suit or proceeding; provided however, that Seller`s liability hereunder, if any, shall be strictly and solely limited to the amount of royalties which would be payable in respect of revenues derived by Seller from Buyer from sales of the infringing goods. Seller shall not be obligated to defend or be liable for costs and damages if the infringement arises out if a combination with, an        addition to, or modification of the goods after delivery by Seller, or from use of the goods, or any part thereof, in the practice of a process.
If any goods manufactured and supplied by Seller to Buyer are held to infringe any valid patent and Buyer is enjoined from using the same, or if seller believes such infringement is likely, Seller will exert all reasonable efforts at its option and expense (i) to procure for Buyer the right to use such goods free of any liability for such infringement, or (ii) replace or modify such goods with a noninfringing substitute otherwise complying substantially with all the requirements of this contract, or (iii) upon return of the goods, refund the purchase price and the transportation costs of such goods (less reasonable allowance for their use and benefit derived therefrom for the period of time from delivery to Buyer, such allowance being based on a straight-line depreciation period of _______ years from the date of shipment by Seller). If the infringement is alleged prior to completion of delivery of the goods, Seller has the right to decline to make further shipments without being in breach of contract. If Seller has not been enjoined from selling such goods to Buyer, Seller may (at Seller`s sole election), at Buyer`s request, supply such goods to Buyer, in which event Buyer shall be deemed to extend to Seller the same patent indemnity hereinabove stated. The same patent indemnity shall be deemed to be extended to Seller by buyer if any suit or proceeding is brought against Seller based on a claim that the goods manufactured by Seller in compliance with Buyer`s specifications infringe any valid patent. Buyer shall promptly notify Seller of any infringement by a third party of intellectual property rights licensed to Buyer under this contract. In the event that a third party infringes such intellectual property rights, the Parties shall cooperate with one another to take appropriate action to cause such infringement to cease. The foregoing states the sole and exclusive liability of the parties hereto for infringement of patents, copyrights, mask works, trade secrets trademarks, and other proprietary rights, whether direct or contributory, and is in lieu of all warranties, express, implied or statutory, in regard hereto, including, without limitation, the warranty against infringement specified in the uniform commercial code.

补偿
(a)每方应就其按本合同规定履行其本合同项下义务所导致的、与其有关的或由其引发的一切损失、损害、责任、支出、费用、索赔、诉讼、要求、诉讼行为、诉因、程序、判决、估定税额、欠额以及收费(合称“损害”)补偿另一方、另一方的股东、董事、管理人员、雇员、代理、被指定人、受让人或其中任何一人,使之不受损害,并且在不对上文所述予以限制的条件下,买方还应就下述各项所导致的、与其有关的或由其引发的上述任何事项补偿卖方:(略)。
(b)如果第三方提出一方按本合同规定有权获得补偿的索赔请求,一方(“受补偿方”)应在实际可能的情况下尽早通知另一方(“补偿方”),但无论如何不得迟于在收到该等请求后的第_______日。受补偿方未给予该通知并不排除其按本合同规定寻求补偿,除非未给予该通知补偿方抗辩该索赔请求的能力受到实质影响。补偿方(与其自行选择的律师一起)应及时对该索赔请求进行抗辩,而受补偿方应在对该索赔请求进行抗辩时与补偿方合作,包括按照补偿方规定的原则就该事项达成和解(补偿方承担该和解的一切费用与支出)。如果补偿方收到索赔通知后为受补偿方辩护,则受补偿方应有权对该索赔进行抗辩、妥协或和解,费用由补偿方承担。在承担对该等索赔请求的辩护后,补偿方可进行和解、妥协或抗辩,由其酌处。
无论本条有何相反的规定,如果发生对买方的诉讼、索赔、诉讼行为或程序是基于以下主张,即卖方制造并销售给买方的物品侵犯了任何第三方的_______国专利、版权、掩模、商标、商业秘密或其他任何知识产权,则卖方将就该诉讼、索赔、诉讼行为或程序为买方辩护,并将支付局判决(不能再上诉的)判定由买方承担的损害赔偿与费用,以及买方实际的支出与费用,上述规定的条件是:(1)卖方被及时告知侵权指控的发生,并得到与该侵权指控有关的每一通讯、通知或其他诉讼文书的副本,(2)得到该辩护的独家控制权(包括选择律师的权利),以及就诉讼或程序进行妥协或者和解的独家权利;但是,卖方在本合同项下的责任(如果有的话),应严格地并且仅仅限于卖方因买方销售侵权物品而应从买方获得的特许权使用费收入金额。如果侵权是由卖方交货后有人将物品混合、添加或改造而引起,或者由实施某一方法时使用物品(或其何部分)而引起,则卖方无义务进行辩护,亦无承担费用或损害赔偿的责任。
如果卖方制造并向买方提供的任何物品被判定侵犯有效的_______国专利,且卖方被禁止使用该专利,或者如果卖方相信很可能发生侵权,卖方将尽一切合理的努力,自费从以下措施中作出选择:(1)为买方取得使用该等物品而不产生侵权责任的权利,或(2)以在其他方面实质符合本合同所有规定的非侵权替代品来代替或改造该等物品,或(3)在该等物品被返还后,退还该等物品的购买价以及运费(扣除向买方交货至退还期间使用该等物品并从中获得利益的折扣金额,该折扣金额按从卖方装运之日起_______年直线式折旧来计算)。如果交货完成前发生权指控,卖方有权拒绝进一步装运,而不构成违约。如果卖方还没有被禁止向买方销售该等物品,应买方请求,卖方可以(仅由卖方酌定)向买方供应该等物品,在此情况下,买方应被视为向卖方做出与本合同上文所述相同的专利补偿保证。
如果有人指称卖方按照买方规格制造的物品侵犯了有效的_______国专利,并以此为根据向卖方提起诉讼或程序,则买方应被视为已向卖方做出同样的专利补偿保证。
买方应将第三方侵犯本合同项下许可给买方的知识产权及时通知卖方。如果第三方侵犯该等知识产权,双方应互相合作,采取适当的行动制止该侵权行为。
上文规定了本合同双方就专利、版权、掩模、商业秘密、商标以及其他专有权利的侵权(无论是直接的还是协从的)所承担的唯一责任,并且取代就其所做出的所有保证(明示的、暗示的或法定的),包括(但不限于)_____中规定的不侵权保证。


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